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Shahrisabz. Written sources


Shahrisabz. Written sources


Shahrisabz. Written sources


Shahrisabz. Written sources


Shahrisabz. Written sources


Shahrisabz. Written sources


Shahrisabz. Written sources


Written sources

The written language history and script culture are integral part of State system, socio-economic, educational life of the past. script culture was formed during several ages and passed through such periods as “mnemonics”, “material script”, “pictography”, “ideogram” before alphabet’s appearances with written letters. For example there are pictography scripts (consisting of pictures) oh the rock of Suypantosh monument located in Kuruksoy foothills in the Eastern part of Kashkadarya (the late era of paleolith and mesolite), and ideogram scripts (symbols with exact and easy image) on the earthenware crockery found in Podayotoktepa (VIII –VII century B.C.). VIII-VII centuries in the Central Asia are periods of script culture prosperity, some scientists think that the most ancient part of the holy Zaratushtra’s book Avesta was written in this period. The Eastern part of Kashkadarya, Gava Suguda, is described as sogdian Motherland in this holy book. Though the Central Asian in the early of the 1st millennium B.C. population knew the Phoenician and then the Aramaic framed by Shamiy nation in the Front Asia. Such is indeed language in which holy book Avesta was written.

Ancient written language of the Central Asion nations was developed in 3 ways geneticly. First it was local script formed in VI-V B.C.. This written language named in science as “hot script” couldn’t compete with Aramaic which was the state language at that time. The Sogdiya written language appear with increasing of satrap’s authority of Akhmoniy’s state based on the Aramaic letters. Horezm’s written language was also based on the Aramaic, 20 letters were taken from there 22 ones. Ancient Bokhtar script was also formed bu the way of Aramai conformity to Baktrian language. Besides above-listed Sogdiana, Khoresmian, Baktrian, Greco-Baktrian scripts there were scripts of Maniy, Sureni, Kharoshtkhi, Barkhmiy, Uigur- Turky and ancient Turky but unfortunatly they were little studied. There are also ideogram scripts (symbols with exact and easy image) on the earthenware crockery found in Podayotoktepa in the museum.

The further written language history and script culture of Uzbekistan people is connected with Arabic character and monuments of ascripts in the Arabic, farcy и Turkic languages also written in Arabic is a written heritage of uzbek people. The ofocial Arabic character first was named «Ma’kaliy». Letters were written in vertical and plate form. The style of Kufiy script was created in VII age in the town Kufs Ya’rabom ibn Kakhtonom. This script was used in the Koran «The Langar Koran» which is kept in Katta Langar mosque. This script was used on the wall decoration of the main buildings of Shakhrisabz. In the complexes of Oksaroy, Dorulsaodat and Dorultilovat. It was used because the symbols were ias geometrical rectangle and design. There are exponats on Kufiy script on the earthenware crockery of Karakhanid period in IX-XI centuries.

Arabic character development became a reason of appearin of new styles in the early 10 age. Those styles were based on Kufiy style and were of several types: mukhakkik, raykhani, suls, naskh, tavki’, riko’. After naskh script was widily used in bookish art, ta’lik was used till 14 century. A lot of manuscrips were written in naskh and riko’ scripte till nasta’lik script appearance.

In script culture and in iohter spheres began the Renaissance period in Amir Temur and the Temurids’ epoch. Large libraries were opend in Amir Temur 's palace where famous all over the world penmen worked. For example it was noticed in the book «Zafarname” by historian Sharafiddin al Yazdi that Amir Temur's latter was sent to Pharaoh written by mavlono Abdullokhom Keshi which was of 3 arshine and 70 arshine long rounded with golden water and made in bookish pen style by mavlono Muhammad». In the Amir Temur and the Temurids’ epoch calligraphy was led to the top of perfection, this tradion was continued when ruling of Mirza Shakhrikh in Guerat, Sheraze and other towns. When ruling of Khusain Baykaro, Alisher Navoi protected this style. Poets made strong ascendancy in the culture of that time such as Amir Khisrav Dekhlavi (1253-1325) moved from Shakhrisabz to India, Mirza Abdulkodira Bedila (1644-1721). Who wrote in the Farcy и Tajik languges. Ayyub Shakhrisabzi ibn Abdulbaraka, Lozimi Keshi, Najmi Keshi, Khakim Shakhrisabzi, Mir Tabib, Mushtok Shakhrisabzi, Farakh Shakhrisabzi did in Amir Temur and the Temurids’ epoch. Such penmen as Darvishmukhammad ibn Dustmuhammad (XVI century), Mir Abdullokh Termizi (XVII century), Mukhammad Yusuf Makhmud Chappanavis (XIX century), Akhmad Donish (XIX century), Mukhammad Sharif Samarkandi (XIX century), in Shakhrisabz Mirza Umbrokiy Shakhrisabzi(Samarkandi) (1878-1957), Fayzullo Ravnaki (1892-1978), Abdullo Rakhmon Gulshani (1898-1978), Ismoilkhon Shakhrisabzi Fakiri (1910-1980), Najimiddim Asiri (Najoti) (1917-1853), Salokhiddin Mannon ugli (Solikhi) (1905-1977) lived in Maverannakhr in XVI-XIX centuries.







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